Giorgio de Chirico,1915- The purity of a dream (La purezza di un sogno 1915)
Heading Toward The Ancient Armenian City Of Kars - April 2014 (9/??)
by Sam Horine
Giorgio de Chirico, Hector and Andromache. 1912, oil on wood panel. Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, Rome, Italy.
The Triumph of Death, detail - Pieter Bruegel the Elder
oil on panel
117 cm × 162 cm
Museo del Prado, Madrid
Less than 10% of human DNA has functional role, claim scientists
Large stretches may be no more than biological baggage, say researchers after comparing genome with that of other mammals
More than 90% of human DNA is doing nothing very useful, and large stretches may be no more than biological baggage that has built up over years of evolution, Oxford researchers claim. The scientists arrived at the figure after comparing the human genome with the genetic makeup of other mammals, ranging from dogs and mice to rhinos and horses. The researchers looked for sections of DNA that humans shared with the other animals, which split from our lineage at different points in history. When DNA is shared and conserved across species, it suggests that it does something valuable. Gerton Lunter, a senior scientist on the team, said that based on the comparisons, 8.2% of human DNA was “functional”, meaning that it played an important enough role to be conserved by evolution. “Scientifically speaking, we have no evidence that 92% of our genome is contributing to our biology at all,” Lunter told the Guardian. Researchers have known for some time that only 1% of human DNA is held in genes that are used to make crucial proteins to keep cells – and bodies – alive and healthy. The latest study, reported in the journal Plos Genetics, suggests that a further 7% of human DNA is equally vital, regulating where, when, and how genes are expressed. But if much of our DNA is so worthless, why do we still carry it around? “It’s not true that nature is parsimonious in terms of needing a small genome. Wheat has a much larger genome than we do,” Lunter said. “We haven’t been designed. We’ve evolved and that’s a messy process. This other DNA really is just filler. It’s not garbage. It might come in useful one day. But it’s not a burden.” (via Less than 10% of human DNA has functional role, claim scientists | Science | The Guardian)
A City on the Rock - Eugenio Lucas Velazquez
The planet Jupiter has 67 confirmed moons. This gives it the largest retinue of moons with “reasonably secure” orbits of any planet in the Solar System. In fact, Jupiter and its moons are like a miniature solar system with the inner moons orbiting faster than the others. Eight of Jupiter’s moons are regular satellites, with prograde and nearly circular orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect to Jupiter’s equatorial plane. The remainder of Jupiter’s moons are irregular satellites, whose prograde and retrograde orbits are much farther from Jupiter and have high inclinations and eccentricities. These moons were probably captured by Jupiter from solar orbits. There are 17 recently discovered irregular satellites that have not yet been named.
Image Credit: NASA/ESA/Lowell Observatory/J. Spencer/JHU-APL